What is EMDR

These videos from the EMDR International Association explains EMDR

What is EMDR Therapy? Check here for more info

The eight phases of EMDR explained in detail:

The eight phases of EMDR explained in detail:

There are eight phases of EMDR, where our highly trained trauma therapists facilitate the physical changes in the brain’s neural pathways to diminish and oftentimes completely eliminate physical symptoms and transform negative cognitions or limiting beliefs (which we all have) that keep us “stuck” in the same pattern of thinking. Irrational beliefs such as “I’m not good enough, I’m powerless, I can’t trust my own judgment,” or “I’m not safe” are transformed into healthy realistic beliefs like: “I’m valuable, I can choose who to trust, I have control in my life and it’s over now, and I’m safe.”

Below is a brain scan from Dr. Amen Clinics. The left image reveals a red area showing unhealthy over activity in the brain. The right image was taken after only four sessions of EMDR Therapy. The red is almost totally gone and the brain is functioning normally and efficiently.

The unprocessed traumas are like documents being littered all over the desktop computer in our mind. In order to consolidate, or “file” past life traumas from being scattered all over our brain and interrupting daily life. The brain needs to connect the right and left hemispheres through the corpus callosum, a neural highway if you will, that connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain’s frontal cortex.

This is accomplished by watching a moving light and/or holding theratappers, which alternately vibrate while processing the traumatic event. This technique is called bilateral stimulation (BLS) and imitates rapid eye movement, or REM sleep, when we process our experiences when we sleep. Talk therapy does not address this component to fully process trauma, Bottom line? EMDR does, which is why EMDR is the most effective modality in treating trauma. THAT’S WHY YOU’RE HERE!

Trauma is anything that makes you feel unsafe. It could be an event such as a violent act, natural disaster or a “seemingly” trivial event like being ridiculed in front of classmates by a teacher and feeling humiliated, leaving you with an irrational belief like “I’m stupid or don’t fit in with others.” No matter how you know this thought is not the truth, you can’t get rid of it. You feel stuck. These limiting beliefs that accompany the unprocessed traumas are carried in the brain’s neural networks and are triggered when activated by sights, sounds, smells, tastes, thoughts and anniversaries related to the traumatic event.

Have you or those around you noticed you are experiencing any of these symptoms? They may be signs that you are experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The following are some of the most common symptoms of PTSD:

  • Mood swings
  • Depression, sadness, or social isolation
  • Feeling the need to be hyper-aware or alert in case of danger
  • An exaggerated startle response, on edge Increased irritability, sudden anger attacks
  • Feelings of shame, guilt, or intense worry
  • A sense of numbness in life
  • Disconnected from those you care about
  • Disconnected from your own body
  • Nightmares or flashbacks that re-live the traumatic event
  • Avoiding situations which may be reminders of event
  • Difficulty functioning in daily life
  • Substance abuse and dependence
  • Consider harming yourself or others

EMDR Gains Hollywood Support

Russell Brand, Sandra Bullock, Prince Harry, are just a few Hollywood celebrities that share their stories of how EMDR helped them in their traumas.

Bipolar Disorder

Bedeschi, L. (2018). EMDR for bipolar disorder: A systematic review of the existing literature. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, (15)3, 222.225. Open access: https://www.clinicalneuropsychiatry.org/clinical-neuropsychiatry-volume-15-issue-3-june-2018/

Landin-Romero, R., Novo, P., Vicens, V., McKenna, P. J., Santed, A., Pomarol-Clotet, E., Salgado-Pineda, P., Shaprio, F., & Amann, B. L. (2013). EMDR therapy modulates the default mode network in a subsyndromal, traumatized bipolar patient. Neuropsychobiology, 67(3), 181-184. https://doi.org/10.1159/000346654

Maxfield, L. (2019). A clinician’s guide to the efficacy of EMDR therapy. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 239-246. Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.239

Moreno-Alcazar, A., Radua, J., Landin-Romero, R., Blanco, L., Madre, M., Reinares, M., . . . & Amann, B. L. (2017). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy versus supportive therapy in affective relapse prevention in bipolar patients with a history of trauma: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 18(1), 160. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-017-1910-y

Novo, P., Landin-Romero, R., Radua, J., Vicens, V., Fernandez, I., Garcia, F., . . . & Amann, B. L. (2014). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in subsyndromal bipolar patients with a history of traumatic events: A randomized, controlled pilot-study. Psychiatry Research, 219(1), 122-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2014.05.012

Oh, D. & Kim, D. (2014). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for posttraumatic stress disorder in bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Investigation, 11(3), 340-341. Open access: https://doi.org/10.4306/pi.2014.11.3.340

Perlini, C., Donisi, V., Rossetti, M. F., Moltrasio, C., Bellani, M., & Brambilla, P. (2020). The potential role of EMDR on trauma in affective disorders: A narrative review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 269(15), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.03.001

Valiente-Gomez, A., Moreno-Alcazar, A., Gardoki-Souto, I., Masferrer, C., Porta, S., Royuela, O., . . . & Amann, B. L. (2019). Theoretical background and clinical aspects of the use of EMDR in patients with bipolar disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 307-312. Open access: https://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.307

Valiente-Gomez, A., Moreno-Alcazar, A., Treen, D., Cedron, C., Colom, F., Perez, V. et al. (2017). EMDR beyond PTSD: A systematic literature review. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1668. Open access: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01668

Books/Chapters and Other Resources:

Amann, B. L., Batalla, R., Blanch, V., Capellades, D., Carvajal, M. J., Fernandez, I., . . . & Luber, M. (2015). The EMDR therapy protocol for bipolar disorder. In M. Luber (Ed.), Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy scripted protocols and summary sheets: Treating anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and mood-related conditions (pp. 223-287). New York, NY: Springer, Publishing Co.

Other Articles:

Del Hierro, M. L., & Hayden, S. C. W. (2017). Integrating interpersonal social rhythm therapy and eye movement desensitization reprocessing in treatment planning for bipolar disorder. Vistas Online, Article 52.  https://www.counseling.org/knowledge-center/vistas/by-subject2/vistas-client/docs/default-source/vistas/integrating_interpersonal


Hofmann, A., Hase, M., Liebermann, P., Ostacoli, L., Lehnung, M., Ebner, F., Rost, C., Luber, M., & Tumani, V. (2016). DeprEnd©-EMDR therapy protocol for the treatment of depressive disorder. In M. Luber [Ed.], Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy scripted protocols and summary sheets: Treating anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and mood-related conditions (pp. 290-323). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.

Hofmann, A., Ostacoli, L., Lehnung, M., Luber, M., & Hase, M. Treating depression with EMDR therapy: Techniques and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Publishing

Knipe, J. (2009). “Shame is my safe place”: Adaptive information processing methods of resolving chronic shame-based depression. In R. Shapiro (Ed.), EMDR solutions II: For depression, eating disorders, performance, and more (pp. 49-89). New York, NY: Norton.

Shapiro, F., & Selk Forrest, M. (1997). EMDR: The breakthrough therapy for overcoming anxiety, stress, and trauma. New York, NY: Basic Books.

EMDR and Depression Peer-Reviewed Research Articles: Note that not all articles are open access, but those that are should be indicated that way.

Acarturk, C., Konuk, E., Cetinkaya, M., Senay, I., Sijbrandij, M., Gulen, B., & Cuijpers, P. (2016). The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among Syrian refugees: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 46(12), 2583-2593.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291716001070

Ahmed, A. (2018). EMDR therapy for an elderly woman with depression, traumatic memories, and Parkinson’s disease dementia: A case study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(1), 16-23. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.12.1.16

Assmann, N., Fassbinder, E., Schaich, A., Lee, C. W., Boterhoven de Haan, K., Rijkeboer, M., & Arntz, A. (2021). Differential effects of comorbid psychiatric disorders on treatment outcome in posttraumatic stress disorder from childhood trauma. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10(16), 3708. Open access: https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10163708

Bae, H., Kim, D., & Parke, Y. C. (2008). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for adolescent depression. Psychiatry Investigation. 5(1), 60-65. Open access: https://doi.org/10.4306/pi.2008.5.1.60

Bae, H., Kim, D., Cho, Y., Kim, D., & Kim, S. H. (2018). Add-on eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for adults with posttraumatic stress disorder who failed to respond to initial antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 33(48), e306. Open access: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6249165/

Baptist, J., Thompson, D. E., Spencer, C., Mowla, M. R., Love, H. A., & Su, Y. (2021). Clinical efficacy of EMDR in unipolar depression: Changes in theta cordance. Psychiatry Research, 296, 113696. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113696

Behnammoghadam, M., Alamdari, A. K., Behnammoghadam, A., & Darban, F. (2015). Effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on depression in patients with myocardial infarction. Global Journal Health Science, 7(6), 258-262. Doi:10.5539/Gjhs.V7n6p258. Open access: http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/gjhs/article/view/47723

Behnammoghadam, M., Behnommooghadam, A., & Salehian, T. (2015). Efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on depression in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) in a 12-month follow-up. Iranian Journal of Critical Care Nursing, 8(1), 221-226.

Broad, R. D., & Wheeler, K. (2006). An adult with childhood medical trauma treated with psychoanalytic psychotherapy and EMDR: A case study. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 42(2), 95-105. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6163.2006.00058.x

Capezzani, L., Ostacoli, L., Cavallo, M., Carletto, S., Fernandez, I., Solomon, R., Pagani, M., & Cantelmi, T. (2013). EMDR and CBT for cancer patients: Comparative study of effects on PTSD, anxiety, and depression. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(3), 134-143. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.7.3.134

Carletto, S., Malandrone, F., Berchialla, P., Oliva, F., Colombi, N., Hase, M., Hofmann, A., & Ostacoli, L. (2021). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 12, 1894736. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2021.1894736

Carletto, S., Ostacoli, L., Colombi, N., Calorio, L., Oliva, F., Fernandez, I., & Hofmann, A. (2017). EMDR for depression: A systematic review of controlled studies. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14(5), 306-312. Open access: https://www.clinicalneuropsychiatry.org/clinical-neuropsychiatry-volume-14-issue-5-october-2017/

Dominguez, S., Drummond, P., Gouldthorp, B., Janson, D., & Lee, C. W. (2020). A randomized controlled trial examining the impact of individual trauma-focused therapy for individuals receiving group treatment for depression. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 12268. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12268

Dominguez, S. K., Matthijssen, S. J. M. A., & Lee, C. W. (2021). Trauma-focused treatments for depression. A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS one, 16(7), e0254778. Open access:

Draganovic, S. (2021). Barriers to psychological treatment of depression: Case study presentation of incomplete EMDR treatment. Psychiatria Danubina, 33(Suppl 1), 116-122. Retrieved from: http://www.psychiatria-danubina.com/2021-vol-33-sup-1/2354?tip=&datum_od=&datum_do=&detalji=2354&z=&page=5

El-Abbassy, A. A., EL Berry, K. I., El Mageed, H. H. A., & Amer, H. M. (2021). The effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing technique on COVID-19 induced anxiety, depression, sleep quality among emergency nurses. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 25(5), 3185-3205. Open access retrieval from: http://annalsofrscb.ro/index.php/journal/article/view/4931

Fereidouni, Z., Behnammoghadam, M., Jahanfar, A., & Dehghan, A. (2019). The effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on the severity of suicidal thoughts in patients with major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Neuropyschiatric Disease and Treatment, 15, 2459-2466. Open access: https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S210757

Gauhar, Y. W. M. (2016). The efficacy of EMDR in the treatment of depression. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(2), 59-69. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.10.2.59

Grey, E. (2011). A pilot study of concentrated EMDR: A brief report. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(1), 14-24. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.5.1.14

Hase, M., Balmaceda, U., Hase, A., Lehnung, M., Tumani, V., Huchzermeier, C., & Hofmann, A. (2015). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in the treatment of depression: A matched-pairs study in an inpatient setting. Brain and Behavior, 5(6), e00342. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.342

Hase, M., Balmaceda, U., Ostacoli, L., Liebermann, P., & Hofmann, A. (2017). The AIP model of EMDR therapy and pathogenic memories. Frontiers in Psychology: Psychology for Clinical Settings, 01578. Open access: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01578

Hase, M., Plagge, J., Hase, A., Braas, R., Ostacoli, L., Hofmann, A., & Huchzermeier, C. (2018). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing versus treatment as usual in the treatment of depression: A randomized controlled trial. Frontiers of Psychology, 14(9), 1384. Open access: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01384

Hase, M. (2021). Instant resource installation and extensive resource installation – two novel techniques for resource installation in EMDR therapy – theory, description and case report. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 5(4), 100224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejtd.2021.100224

Hatefi, M., Tarjoman, A., Moradi, S., & Borji, M. (2019). The effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on depression and anxiety in patients with spinal cord injuries. Trauma Monthly, 24(5), 1-6. Open access: https://dx.doi.org/10.5812/traumamon.92873

Hofmann, A., Hilgers, A., Lehnung, M., Liebermann, P., Ostacoli, L., Schneider, W., & Hase, M. (2014). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing as an adjunctive treatment of unipolar depression: A controlled study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 8(3), 103-112. Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.8.3.103

Jahanfar, A., Fereidouni, Z., Behnammoghadam, M., Deghgan, A., & Bashti, S. (2020). Efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on the quality of life in patients with major depressive disorder: A randomized clinical trial. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 13, 11-17. Open access: https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S232589

Kevser Boyraz, R., Kirpinar, I., Yilmaz, O., Ozyurt, O., Kilicarslan, T., & Aralasmak, A. (2021). A treatment-response comparison study of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging between standard treatment of SSRI and standard treatment of SSRI plus non-dominant hand-writing task in patients with major depressive disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry: Neuroimaging and Stimulation, 698954. Open access: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.698954

Krupnik, V. (2015). Integrating EMDR into a novel evolutionary-based therapy for depression: A case study of postpartum depression. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 9(3), 137-149. Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.9.3.137

Krupnik, V. (2018). Differential effects of an evolutionary-based EMDR therapy on depression and anxiety symptoms. Journal of Practice and Research, 12(2), 46-57. Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.12.2.46

Lei, S., & Zhen-Yin, W. (2007). Comparative study of sertraline combined with EMDR in the treatment of depression. Journal of Clinical Psychosomatic, 4(1), 307-308. Retrieved from: http://caod.oriprobe.com/articles/12867831/A_control_study_of_sertraline_combined_with_the_EMDR_in_the_treatment_.htm

Lobenstine, F., & Courtney, D. (2013). A case study: The integration of intensive EMDR and ego state therapy to treat comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(2), 65-80. Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.7.2.65

Malandrone, F., Carlett, S., Hofmann, A., Hase, M., & Ostacoli, L. (2019). A brief narrative summary of randomized controlled trials investigating EMDR treatment of patients with depression. Journal of Practice and Research, 13(4). Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.302

Matthijssen, S. J., Lee, C. W., de Roos, C., Barron, I. G., Jarero, I., Shapiro, E., et al. (2020). The current status of EMDR therapy, specific target areas, and goals for the future. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(4), 241– 256. Open access: http://doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-D-20-00039

Meentken, M. F., van der Mheen, M., van Beynum, I. M., Aendekerk, E. W. C., Legerstee, J. S., van der Ende, J., Del Canho, R., Lindauer, R. J. L., Hillegers, M. H. J., Moll, H. A., Helbing, W. A., & Utens, E. M. W. J. (2020). EMDR for children with medically related subthreshold PTSD: Short-term effects on PTSD, blood-injection-injury phobia, depression and sleep. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11, 1705598. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2019.1705598

Minelli, A., Zampieri, E., Sacco, C., Bazzanella, R., Mezzetti, N., Tessari, E., Barlati, S., & Bortolomasi., M. (2019). Clinical efficacy of trauma-focused psychotherapies in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in-patients. A randomized, controlled pilot-study. Psychiatry Research 273, 567-574. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.01.070

Ostacoli, L., Carletto, S., Marco, C., Baldomir-Gago, P., Di Lorenzo, G., Fernandez, I., Hase, M., Justo-Alonso, A., Lehnung, M., Migliaretti, F., Oliva, F., Pagani, M., Recarey-Eiris, S., Torta, R., Tumani, V., Gonzalez-Vazquez, A. I., & Hofmann, A. (2018). Comparison of eye movement desensitization reprocessing and cognitive behavioral therapy as adjunctive treatments for recurrent depression: The European Depression EMDR Network (EDEN) randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(74), 1-12. Open access: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00074

Paauw, C., de Roos, C., Tummers, J., de Jongh, A., & Dingemans, A. (2019). Effectiveness of trauma-focused treatment for adolescents with major depressive disorder. The European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 10(1), 1682931. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2019.1682931

Perlini, C., Donisi, V., Rossetti, M. F., Moltrasio, C., Bellani, M., & Brambilla, P. (2020). The potential role of EMDR on trauma in affective disorders: A narrative review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 269(15), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.03.001

Proudlock, S., & Peris, J. (2020). Using EMDR therapy with patients in an acute mental health crisis. BMC Psychiatry, 20, 14. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2426-7

Sepehry, A. A., Lam, K., Sheppard, M., Guirguis-Younger, M., & Maglio, A-S. (2021). EMDR for depression: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Journal of EMDR Practice & Research, 15(1), 2-17. Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-D-20-00038

Shapiro, R., Hofmann, A., & Earl, G. (2013). Case consultation: Unremitting depression. Journal of EMDR Practice & Research, 7(1), 39-44. Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.7.1.39

Sheikhi, M., R., Moradibaglooei, M., & Ghiasvand, M. (2020). The effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on depression in spinal cord injury patients. Avicenna Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Care, 29(1), 72-80. Open access: http://nmj.umsha.ac.ir/article-1-2214-en.html

Shuya, Y., Shan, Y., Zhong, S., Miao, H., Luo, Y., Ran, H., & Jia, Y. (2021). The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing toward adults with major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Frontiers in Psychiatry: Psychological Therapist, 700458. Open access: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.700458

Wood, E., & Ricketts, T. (2013). Is EMDR an evidenced-based treatment for depression? A review of the literature. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(4), 225-236. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.7.4.225

Yan, S., Shan, Y., Zhong, S., Miao, H., Luo, Y., Ran, H., & Jia, Y. (2021). The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing toward adults with major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 700458. Open access: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.700458

Other Articles:

Hogan, W. A. (2001). The comparative effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of depression. [Doctoral dissertation, Indiana State University]. www.worldcat.org/oclc/50743943

Miller, R. (2021, Oct 15). EMDR for depression: How it works, examples, & effectiveness. Choosing Therapy. www.choosingtherapy.com/emdr-for-depression/

Su, Y. (2018). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy as a treatment for depression. [Masters thesis, Kansas State University]. http://hdl.handle.net/2097/38813

The Western Pennsylvania Healthcare News. (2021, July 21). How eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) can help with clinical depression. www.wphealthcarenews.com/how-eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-emdr-can-help-with-clinical-depression/


Levin, A. (Host). (2021, June 27). Al interviews Dr. Joyce Baptist, professor in the couple and family therapy program at Kansas State University, on the topic of eye movement desensitization & reprocessing (EMDR) therapy [Audio podcast episode]. In The Depression Files. Podbean. https://allevin18.podbean.com/e/al-interviews-dr-joyce-baptist-professor-inthecouple-andfamily-therapyprogram-at-kansas-stateuniversityonthe-topicof-eye-movementdesensitization-r/

In Comparison to other Trauma Modalities


Eating Disorders


EMDR and First Responders and Military

EMDR Therapy Helps First Responders




EMDR Therapy and Military Research and Resource List

U.S. Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense PTSD TREATMENT GUIDELINE

Department of Veterans Affairs & Department of Defense. (2017). VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for the management of post-traumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder. The Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Work Group. Office of Quality and Performance publication. doi:10Q-CPG/PTSD-04. Retrieved from: https://www.healthquality.va.gov/guidelines/MH/ptsd/

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Resources: PTSD and EMDR

WRITTEN RESOURCES on EMDR and the Military

Peer Reviewed Articles:

Albright, D. L., & Thyer, B. (2009). Does EMDR reduce post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology in combat veterans? Behavioral Interventions, 25(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1002/bin.295

Ahmadi, K., Hazrati, M., Ahmadizadeh, M., & Noohi, S. (2015). REM desensitization as a new therapeutic method for post-traumatic stress disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Acta Medica Indonesiana, 47(2), 111-119. http://www.actamedindones.org/index.php/ijim/article/view/46

Bandelow, B., Koch, M., Zimmermann, P., Biesold, K., Wedekind, D., & Falkai, P. (2012). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the German armed forces: A retrospective study in inpatients of a Germany army hospital. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 262(1), 459-467. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00406-012-0289-8

Boudewyns, P. A., Stwertka, S. A., Hyer, L. A., Albrecht, J. W. & Sperr, E. V. (1993). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: A pilot study. Behavior Therapist, 16, 30-33.

Brickell, M., Russell, M. C., & Smith, R. B. (2015). The effectiveness of evidence-based treatments in treatment of active military personnel and their families. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 9(4), 198-208. Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.9.4.198

Butler, O., Herr, K., Willmund, G., Gallinat, J., Kuhn, S., & Zimmerman, P. (2020). Trauma, treatment and Tetris: Video gaming increases hippocampal volume in male patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 45(4), 279-287. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1503/jpn.190027

Butler, O., Willmund, G., Gleich, T., Gallinat, J., Kuhn, S., & Zimmerman, P. (2018). Hippocampal gray matter increases following multimodal psychological treatment for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Brain and Behavior, 8(5), e00956. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.956

Carlson, J. G., Chemtob, C. M., Rusnak, K., & Hedlund, N. L. (1996). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for combat PTSD. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 33(1), 104-113. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.33.1.104

Carlson, J. G., Chemtob, C. M., Rusnak, K., Hedlund, N. L., & Muraoka, M. Y. (1998). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(1), 3-24. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024448814268

Cook, J. M., Biyanova, T., & Coyne, J. C. (2009). Comparative case study of diffusion of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in two clinical settings: Empirically supported treatment status is not enough. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40, 518-524. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015144

Cukor, J., Olden, M., Lee, F., & Difede, J. (2010). Evidence-based treatments for PTSD, new directions, and special challenges. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1208(1), 82-89. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05793.x

Devilly, G. J., Spence, S. H., & Rapee, R. M. (1998). Statistical and reliable change with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Treating trauma within a veteran population. Behavior Therapy, 29(3), 435-355.

Frappell-Cooke, W., & McCauley, M. (2019). Military psychological trauma and therapy: A review of EMDR treatment and supervision in the UK Ministry of Defense. BMJ Military Health, 165(2), 90-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jramc-2018-001060

Friedman, M. J. (2006). Posttraumatic stress disorder among military returnees from Afghanistan and Iraq. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(4), 586-593. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2006.163.4.586

Graca, J. J., Palmer, G. A., & Occhietti, K. E. (2014). Psychotherapeutic interventions for symptom reduction in veterans with PTSD: An observational study in a residential clinical setting. Journal of Loss and Trauma 19(6), 558-567. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2013.810441

Haagen, J. F. G., Smid, G. E., Knipscheer, J. W., & Kleber, R. J. (2015). The efficacy of recommended treatments for veterans with PTSD: A metaregression analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 40(1), 184-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.06.008

Hernandez, D. F., Waits, W., Calvio, L., & Byrne, M. (2016). Practice comparisons between accelerated resolution therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and cognitive processing therapy with case examples. Nurse Education Today, 47(1), 74-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2016.05.010

Himmerich, H., Willmund, G. D., Zimmermann, P., Wolf, J.-E., Buhler, A. H., Kirkby, K. C., . . . & Wesemann, U. (2016). Serum concentrations of TNF-a and its soluble receptors during psychotherapy in German soldiers suffering from combat-related PTSD. Psychiatria Danubina, 28(3), 293-298. http://www.psychiatria-danubina.com/articles-issues/9/2016-vol-28-no-3/916?detalji=916

Howard, M. D., & Cox, R. P. (2006). Use of EMDR in the treatment of water phobia at Navy boot camp: A case study. Traumatology, 12(4), 302-313. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534765606297821

Hurley, E. C. (2018). Effective treatment of veterans with PTSD: Comparison between intensive daily and weekly EMDR approaches. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1458. Open access: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01458

Jensen., J. A. (1994). An investigation of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMD/R) as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of Vietnam combat veterans. Behavior Therapy, 25(2), 311-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80290-4

Kennedy, J. E., Jaffee, M. S., Leskin, G. A., Stokes, J. W., Leal, F. O., & Fitzpatrick, P. J. (2007). Posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder-like symptoms and mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 44(7), 895-920. doi: 10.1682/jrrd.2006.12.0166 Open access PDF: https://www.rehab.research.va.gov/jour/07/44/7/pdf/kennedy.pdf

Kitchiner, N. J., Lewis, C., Roberts, N. P., & Bisson, J. I. (2019). Active duty and ex-serving military personnel with post-traumatic stress disorder treated with psychological therapies: Systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 10(1):1684226. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2019.1684226

Kohler, K., Eggert, P., Lorenz, S., Herr, K., Willmund, G., Zimmermann, P. & Alliger-Horn, C. (2017). Effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in German armed forces soldiers with post-traumatic stress disorder under routine inpatient care conditions. Military Medicine, 182(5-6), e1672-e1680. Open access: https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED-D-16-00307

Kozyra, M., Zimnicki, P., Kaczerska, J., Smiech, N., Nowinska, M., & Milanowska, J. (2020). Veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder – literature analyzing: Symptoms, statistics and therapies. Journal of Education, Health and Sport, 10(8), 40-48. Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/JEHS.2020.10.08.005

Krupnik, V. (2018). Differential effects of an evolutionary-based EMDR therapy on depression and anxiety symptoms: A case series study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(2), 46-57. https://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.12.2.46

Lipke, H. J., & Botkin, A. L. (1992). Case studies of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 29(4), 591-595. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.29.4.591

Maglione, M. A., Chen, C., Bialas, A., Motala, A., Chang, J., Akinniranye, O., & Hempel, S. (2021). Combat and operational stress control interventions and PTSD: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Military Medicine, usab310. https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usab310

McLay, R. N., Webb-Murphy, J. A., Fesperman, S. F., Delaney, E. M., Gerard, S. K., Roesch, S. C., . . . & Johnston, S. L. (2016). Outcomes from eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in active-duty service members with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 8(6), 702-708. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000120, https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2016-12355-001?doi=1

Miller, J. R. (1994). Eye movement desensitization reprocessing: Application on the battlefield.                                Dissertations Publishing. 

National Center for PTSD, U. S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2018, December 18). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD. Brainline: Military & Veterans. https://www.brainline.org/article/eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-emdr-ptsd

Prooijen, D. L. van. (2018). The effect of intensive treatment (Exposure and EMDR) on PTSD among veterans. [Master’s thesis, Ultrecht University]. Ultrecht University Repository. Open access retrieval from: http://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/396363

Psychological Health Center of Excellence. (2019, Mar 11). Treatment for PTSD [clinical guidance article]. https://www.pdhealth.mil/clinical-guidance/clinical-conditions/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/treatment

Shapiro, F. (2004). Military and post-disaster field manual. Hamden, CT: EMDR Humanitarian Assistance Program.

Steele, E., Wood, D. S., Usadi, E., Applegarth, D. M. (2018, April 3). TRR’s warrior camp: An intensive treatment program for combat trauma in active military and veterans of all eras. Military Medicine, 183: Issue Supplement, 403-407. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usx153

Sutor, D. (2022). Army veteran shares personal experiences with PTSD. Stars and Stripes. https://www.stripes.com/veterans/2022-04-23/veteran-shares-personal-experiences-with-ptsd-5776657.html

Zeiter, C. (2019). Transitioning out of the military with PTSD. Go With That, 24(2), 24-25. https://www.emdria.org/page/NewsletterArchive


AboutFace. (2019, October). EMDR – Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Putting it into the past [Veteran video story]. https://www.ptsd.va.gov/apps/AboutFace/therapies/emdr.html

Borchert, H. (2021, September 16). Local counselor encourages veterans to try a different form of therapy. 7-WSAW-TV.  https://www.wsaw.com/2021/09/17/local-counselor-encourages-veterans-try-different-form-therapy/

National Center for PTSD. (2018, Jan 29). EMDR for PTSD. Author. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yh1OoOG2WEg (3 min)


Air Force: http://www.af.mil

U.S. Air Force. PTSD: Know the signs, Take Action. [infographic with EMDR]. https://www.woundedwarrior.af.mil/Portals/23/documents/07_PROGRAMS%20AND%20INITIATIVES/06_Invisible%20Wounds%20Initiatives/Updates%2013%20Sept%202019/190917-IWI-PTSD-Infographic%20REDUX.pdf?ver=2019-09-17-153521-953

Bishop, J. (2016, Mar 10). The wounds within: A veteran, a PTSD therapist, and a nation unprepared. Westover Air Reserve Base [news article]. https://www.westover.afrc.af.mil/News/Commentaries/Display/Article/690275/the-wounds-within-a-veteran-a-ptsd-therapist-and-a-nation-unprepared/

Grant, L. (2019, Dec 20). Personal tragedy leads chief to find purpose through career intermission program. Air Reserve Personnel Center [news article]. https://www.arpc.afrc.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/2045433/personal-tragedy-leads-chief-to-find-purpose-through-career-intermission-program/

Holbert-Siebert, E. (2015, July 1). PTSD can create a new normal that’s a lot worse. Air Force Medical Service [news article]. https://www.airforcemedicine.af.mil/News/Display/Article/861611/ptsd-can-create-a-new-normal-thats-a-lot-worse/

Reeves, M. M. SSgt. (2021, January 8). EMDR: A way to process trauma. Air Combat Command [news article]. https://www.acc.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/2465967/emdr-a-way-to-process-trauma/

Army: http://www.army.mil

Bower, M. (2010, April 29). Battling PTSD: Major shares his story. U.S. Army [article]. https://www.army.mil/article/38233/battling_ptsd_major_shares_his_story

Maio, J. (2016, June 2). Post-traumatic stress: Treatable, normal response to abnormal events. U.S. Army [article]. https://www.army.mil/article/169004/post_traumatic_stress_treatable_normal_response_to_abnormal_events

Vergun, D. (2014, September 18). Doc’s advice for those with PTSD: Stay in treatment. U.S. Army [article]. https://www.army.mil/article/134009/docs_advice_for_those_with_ptsd_stay_in_treatment

Marine Corps: http://www.marines.mil

Pearson, L. (2018, June 28). Focus on health: PTSD Awareness Month. Marine Corps [news article]. https://www.marines.mil/News/News-Display/Article/1562835/focus-on-health-ptsd-awareness-month/

Navy: http://www.navy.mil

Basharat, K. (2017, August 25). PTSD 101. US Navy [news article NNS170825-15]. https://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=102127

Cipolloni, D. (2014, December 11). PTSD sufferers should seek the help they need. US Navy [news article NNS141211-07]. https://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=84829


PTSD Screening/Assessment:

Weathers, F. W., Litz, B. T., Keane, T. M., Palmieri, P. A., Marx, B. P. & Schnurr, P. P. (2013). The PTSD checklist for DSM=5 (PCL-5). Scale retrieved from the National Center for PTSD at https://www.myhealth.va.gov/mhv-portal-web/ptsd-screening

Peer-Reviewed Articles:

Appelwhite, L., Arincorayan, D., & Adams, B. (2016). Exploring the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in soldiers seeking behavioral health care during a combat deployment. Military Medicine, 181(10), 1275-1280. Open access: https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED-D-15-00460

Bremner, J. D., Southwick, S., Johnson, D., Yehuda, R., & Charney, D. (1993). Childhood physical abuse and combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(9), 1319-1326. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.150.2.235

Cameron, K. L., Sturdivant, R. X., & Baker, S. P. (2019). Trends in the incidence of physician-diagnosed posttraumatic stress disorder among active-duty U. S. military personnel between 1999 and 2008. Military Medical Research, 6:8. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40779-019-0198-5

Dube, S. R., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Chapman, D. P., Williamson, D. F., & Giles, W. H. (2001). Childhood abuse household dysfunction, and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span: Findings from the adverse childhood experiences study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(24), 3089-3096. doi:10.1001/jama.286.24.3089. Open access: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/194504

Elliott, D. E., Bjelajac, P., Fallot, R. E., Markoff, L. S., & Reed, B. G. (2005). Trauma-informed or trauma-denied: Principles and implementation of trauma-informed services for women. Journal of Community Psychology, 33(4), 461-477. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20063

Merrill, L. L. (2001). Trauma symptomatology among female U.S. Navy recruits. Military Medicine, 166(7), 621-624. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/166.7.621

Ostacher, M. J., & Cifu, A. S. (2019, Jan 15). Management of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of American Medical Association , 321(2), 200-201. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.19290. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.19290

Ramchand, R. Rudavsky, R., Grant, S., Tanielian, T., & Jaycox, L. (2015). Prevalence of, risk factors for, and consequences of posttraumatic stress disorder and other mental health problems in military populations deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17(37). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-015-0575-z

Steenkamp, M. M., Litz, B. T., Hoge, C. W., & Marmar, C. R. (2015). Psychotherapy for military-related PTSD: A review of randomized clinical trials. Journal of the American Medical Association, 314(5), 489-500. http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.8370

Steenkamp, M. M., Litz, B. T., & Marmar, C. R. (2020). First-line psychotherapies for military-related PTSD. Journal of the American Medical Association, 323(7). https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.20825

Straud, C. L., Siev, J., Messer, S., & Zalta, A. K. (2019). Examining military population and trauma type as moderators of treatment outcome for first-line psychotherapies for PTSD: A meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 67, 102133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2019.102133

Wisco, B. E., Marx, B. P., Wolf, E. J., Miler, M. W., Southwick, S. M., & Piettrzak, R. H. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the US Veteran population: Results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 75(12), 1338-1346. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.14m09328

Other Articles/Webpage Articles/Blogs (Not EMDR Specific)

Blanton, N. (2019, Nov 11). PTSD in veterans: Know the signs and ways to cope. Baylor College of Medicine [blog]. https://blogs.bcm.edu/2019/11/11/ptsd-in-veterans-know-the-signs-and-ways-to-cope/

Congressional Research Service. (2015, Aug 7). A guide to U.S. military casualty statistics: Operation Freedom’s Sentinel, Operation Inherent Resolve, Operation New Dawn, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom. USNI News. http://news.usni.org/tag/oef

France, D. & Halows, D. (2019, Oct 29). Suicide prevention strategies with the military-affiliated population. Counseling Today [ACA publication]. https://ct.counseling.org/2019/10/suicide-prevention-strategies-with-the-military-affiliated-population/

Howley, E. K. (2019, June 28). Statistics on PTSD in veterans. U.S. News & World Report [health blog]. https://health.usnews.com/conditions/mental-health/ptsd/articles/ptsd-veterans-statistics

PTSD: National Center for PTSD. (2016). How common is PTSD in veterans? [webpage]. https://www.ptsd.va.gov/understand/common/common_veterans.asp

PTSD: National Center for PTSD. (2021). Provider guide to addressing veterans’ reactions to current events in Afghanistan? [webpage]. https://www.ptsd.va.gov/understand/common/common_veterans.asp

Tanielian, T., Jaycox, L. H., Schell, T. L., Marshall, G. N., Burnam, M. A., Eibner, C. . . . & Vaina, M. E. (2008). Invisible wounds: Mental health and cognitive care needs of America’s returning veterans. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Open access: https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB9336.html

Veterans Affairs & U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (n.d.). Military health history pocket card and unique risks to know about for health professions trainees & clinicians. Retrieved February 17, 2020, from https://www.va.gov/OAA/pocketcard/

Books/Book Chapters (Not EMDR Specific)

Cozza, S. J., Goldenberg, M. N., & Ursano, R. J. (Eds.) (2014). Care of military service members, veterans, and their families. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Grossman, D. (2009). On killing: The psychological cost of learning to kill in war and society. New York, NY: Back Bay Books.

Grossman, D., & Christensen, L. W. (2012). On combat: The psychology and physiology of deadly conflict in war and in peace. E-book publication: Killology Research Group.

Hoge, C. (2010). Once a warrior, always a warrior. Guilford, CT: GPP Life.

Meyer, E. G., & Wynn, G. H. (2018). The importance of US Military cultural competence. In L. W. Roberts & C. H. Warner (Eds.), Military and Veteran Mental Health (pp. 15-33). New York, NY: Springer Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7438-2_2

Morris, D. J. (2015). The evil hours: A biography of post-traumatic stress disorder. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Shay, J. (2002). Odysseus in America: Combat trauma and the trials of homecoming. New York, NY: Scribner Publishing.

FREE RESOURCES: Education on Military Culture (Not EMDR Specific)

Goldenberg, M., Hamaoka, D. A., Santiago, P. N., & McCarroll, J. E. (2012). Basic training: A primer on military life and culture for health care providers and trainees. MedEdPORTAL [educational presentation], 8:9270. Open access: http://doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.9270

PsychArmor Institute: Educating a Nation. (n.d.). Courses for military culture. Retrieved February 17, 2020, from https://psycharmor.org/military-culture-school/

RAND Center for Military Health Policy Research. (2008). Invisible wounds of war: psychological and cognitive injuries, their consequences, and services to assist recovery. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Open access: https://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG720.html

The Mountain Plains Mental Health and Technology Transfer Center (MHTTC). (n.d.). Training mental health providers working with the military community. MHTTC, North Carolina Area Health Education Center Program, Citizen Soldier Support Program [free courses]. Retrieved from:  https://www.aheconnect.com/citizensoldier/default.asp

Uniformed Services University, Center for Deployment Psychology. (n.d.). Learn about military culture [training module and self-awareness exercises]. Retrieved February 17, 2020, from https://deploymentpsych.org/military-culture

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

EMDR Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Preliminary Research Marr, JohnJournal of EMDR Practice and Research  Vol 6 Issue 1, DOI: 10.1891/1933-3196.6.1.2: https://connect.springerpub.com/content/sgremdr/6/1/2

Bohm, K. R. (2019). EMDR’s efficacy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 333-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.333

Cusimano, A., (2018). EMDR in the treatment of adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder: A case study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(4), 242-254. Open access: https://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.12.4.242

De Jongh, A., & ten Broeke, E. (2009). EMDR and the anxiety disorders: Exploring the current status. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(3), 133-140. Open access: https://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.3.3.133

Gorgulu, S. A. (2020). Trichotillomania treatment based on trauma: Case report. Archives of Clinical and Medical Case Reports, 4(1), 158-163. Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.26502/acmcr.96550181

Keenan, P., Farrell, D., Keenan, L., & Ingham, C. (2018). Treating obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy: An ethno-phenomenological case series. International Journal of Psychotherapy, 22(3), 74-91. Open access: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330093373_Treating_Obsessive_Compulsive_Disorder_OCD_using_Eye_Movement_Desensitisation_and_Reprocessing_EMDR_Therapy_An_Ethno-Phenomenological_Case_Serieshttp://www.ijp.org.uk/index.php?ident=b888b29826bb53dc531437e723738383d8339b56#.Xd0-OuhKgVA

Marr, J. (2012).  EMDR treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Preliminary research. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(1), 2-15. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.6.1.2

Marsden, Z. (2016). EMDR treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Three cases. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(2), 91-103. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.10.2.91

Mazzoni, G. P., Pozza, A., La Mela, C., & Fernandez, I. (2017). CBT combined with EMDR for resistant refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: Report of three cases. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14(5), 345-356. Open access: https://www.clinicalneuropsychiatry.org/clinical-neuropsychiatry-volume-14-issue-5-october-2017/

Nijdam, M. J., van der Pol, M. M., Dekens, R. E., Olff, M., & Denys, D. (2013). Treatment of sexual trauma dissolves contamination fear: Case report. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 4, 19157. Open Access: https://doi.org/10.3402/ejpthttps://doi.org/10.3402/ejpt.v4i0.19157

Potik, D. (2017). “Winter is Coming!” – treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder imagery after viewing the television series Game of Thrones. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11(3), 147-161. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.11.3.147

Pozza, A., Mazzoni, G. P., Neri, M. T., Bisciglia, R., La Mela, C., Fernandez, I., & Dettore, D. (2014). “Tackling trauma to overcome OCD resistance” (The TTOOR Florence trial): Efficacy of EMDR plus CBT versus CBT alone for inpatients with resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. Protocol for a randomized comparative outcome trial. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(5), 114-122. Open access: http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajap/2/5/3

Sarichloo, M. E., Taremian, F., Dolatshahee, B., & Haji Seyed Javadi, S. A. (2020). Effectiveness of exposure/response prevention plus eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in reducing anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms associated with stressful life experiences: A randomized controlled trial. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 14(3), e101535. Open access: https://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ijpbs.101535